Moscow considered Eastern Europe to be a critically vital buffer zone for the forward defence of its western borders, in case of another major invasion such as the German invasion of 1941. The country's highest mountain was Communism Peak (now Ismoil Somoni Peak) in Tajikistan, at 7,495 metres (24,590 ft).  The Brezhnev era also introduced a rule that required all university applicants to present a reference from the local Komsomol party secretary. The Comintern was the weapon of choice. The Chechen separatist movement of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria lacks any international recognition. In 1956, he denounced Stalin's use of repression and proceeded to ease controls over the party and society. United States Ship (abbreviated as USS or U.S.S.) Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Belarus, â¦ His theory did not come to fruition because of the USSR's collapse. The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing economic stagnation. The Russian Orthodox Church enjoyed a privileged status as the church of the monarchy and took part in carrying out official state functions. , There were three power hierarchies in the Soviet Union: the legislature represented by the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, the government represented by the Council of Ministers, and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), the only legal party and the final policymaker in the country.  In Armenia, 12% of respondents said the USSR collapse did good, while 66% said it did harm.  According to Catherine Merridale, "... reasonable estimate would place the total number of excess deaths for the whole period somewhere around 60 million. Thank you for becoming a member. A parliament—the State Duma—was established in 1906 after the Russian Revolution of 1905, but Tsar Nicholas II resisted attempts to move from absolute to a constitutional monarchy. Local authorities were organized likewise into party committees, local Soviets and executive committees.  In the aftermath of World War II, the country's educational system expanded dramatically, which had a tremendous effect. In September, Germany invaded Poland, and the USSR also invaded later that month, resulting in the partition of Poland. On 1 February 1924, the USSR was recognized by the United Kingdom. However, when the authorities had to admit that there were environmental problems in the USSR in the 1980s, they explained the problems in such a way that socialism had not yet been fully developed; pollution in a socialist society was only a temporary anomaly that would have been resolved if socialism had developed.  The USSR concentrated on its own recovery, seizing and transferring most of Germany's industrial plants, and it exacted war reparations from East Germany, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria using Soviet-dominated joint enterprises. Although on 14 February 1992 Russia and other former Soviet republics signed agreement "On the return of cultural and historic property to the origin states" in Minsk, it was halted by Russian State Duma that had eventually passed "Federal Law on Cultural Valuables Displaced to the USSR as a Result of the Second World War and Located on the Territory of the Russian Federation" which made restitution currently impossible.. Thanks in advance. In contrast, the USSR was offensively and defensively maneuvering in the acquisition and utilization of the worldwide technology, to increase the competitive advantage that they acquired from the technology while preventing the US from acquiring a competitive advantage. In other European languages, the locally translated short forms and abbreviations are usually used such as Union soviétique and URSS in French, or Sowjetunion and UdSSR in German. Since then, the Russian Federation has assumed the Soviet Union's rights and obligations. There was hope for a settlement of the pre-war Tsarist debts, but it was repeatedly postponed. I searched on the web for this and found many terms with the similar abbreviation: 'CAS'.  Two other successor states, Kazakhstan and Ukraine, rank among the top 10 countries by land area, and the largest country entirely in Europe, respectively. This statistic in itself was seen by some that the socialist system was superior to the capitalist system. The mortality rate demonstrated a gradual decrease as well – from 23.7 per thousand in 1926 to 8.7 in 1974. We can continue to poke Kiev handouts in the calculation of "solve the problem", only it won't be solved. ", The legacy of the USSR remains a controversial topic. A referendum for the preservation of the USSR was held on 17 March 1991 in nine republics (the remainder having boycotted the vote), with the majority of the population in those republics voting for preservation of the Union. Many of these legislatures proceeded to produce legislation contradicting the Union laws in what was known as the "War of Laws". , Moscow eventually stopped threatening other states, and instead worked to open peaceful relationships in terms of trade, and diplomatic recognition. Following Lenin's death in 1924, Joseph Stalin came to power. USSR synonyms, USSR pronunciation, USSR translation, English dictionary definition of USSR. Hi everyone! What were the USSR's 15 republics? Dr. Sergei Portugalov of the Institute for Physical Culture prepared the communication, directed to the Soviet Union's head of track and field. In 1929, Tajikistan was split off from the Uzbekistan SSR. 1.  The economic shocks that accompanied wholesale privatization were associated with sharp increases in mortality. Underground dissident literature, known as samizdat, developed during this late period. Хрестоматия. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union which he initially named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia (Russian: Союз Советских Республик Европы и Азии, tr.  During this period, the number of churches fell from 20,000 to 10,000 from 1959 to 1965, and the number of synagogues dropped from 500 to 97.  By 1989, Soviet scientists were among the world's best-trained specialists in several areas, such as energy physics, selected areas of medicine, mathematics, welding and military technologies.  The primary motivation for industrialization was preparation for war, mostly due to distrust of the outside capitalist world. This site contains various terms related to bank, Insurance companies, Automobiles, Finance, Mobile phones, software, computers,Travelling, â¦ After the Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936, the USSR actively supported the Republican forces against the Nationalists, who were supported by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. It was built on the construction of Salyut stations and its tasks were purely civilian and research. Similar situation occurred with restitution of cultural property. Even after Stalin assumed dictatorial control in the late 1920s, there were debates, and he frequently changed positions.. Although serfdom was abolished in 1861, it was done on terms unfavorable to the peasants and served to encourage revolutionaries.  However, due to inadequate maintenance, much of the road, water and Soviet civil aviation transport were outdated and technologically backward compared to the First World. After Stalingrad, Soviet forces drove through Eastern Europe to Berlin before Germany surrendered in 1945. In the aftermath, Brezhnev justified the invasion along with the earlier invasions of Eastern European states by introducing the Brezhnev Doctrine, which claimed the right of the Soviet Union to violate the sovereignty of any country that attempted to replace Marxism–Leninism with capitalism. ", Scott and Scott, The Armed Forces of the Soviet Union, Westview Press, 1979, p.13, harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFWilson1983 (, Rebecca Balmas Neary, "Mothering Socialist Society: The Wife-Activists' Movement and the Soviet Culture of Daily Life, 1934–1941,".  The Soviet principle of health care was conceived by the People's Commissariat for Health in 1918. The Soviet Union,[e] officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics[f] (USSR),[g] was a federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. In the 1970s, more specific proposals for the design of the space shuttle began to emerge, but shortcomings, especially in the electronics industry (rapid overheating of electronics), postponed the program until the end of the 1980s. Расследование гибели СССР. The Soviet Air Force focused on a fleet of strategic bombers and during war situation was to eradicate enemy infrastructure and nuclear capacity. Going to a trial is also pointless: for a number of European countries this is a political issue, and they will make a decision clearly in whose favor.  This event would later be officially known in Soviet bibliographies as the Great October Socialist Revolution. , The left's view of the USSR is complex. Credit was discouraged, but widespread. Soviet Union, Russia, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR (noun) a former communist country in eastern Europe and northern Asia; established in 1922; included Russia and 14 other soviet socialist republics (Ukraine and Byelorussia and others); officially dissolved 31 December 1991 In 1924, during the national delimitation in Central Asia, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan were formed from parts of Russia's Turkestan ASSR and two Soviet dependencies, the Khorezm and Bukharan SSRs. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and forced collectivization, which led to significant economic growth, but also led to a man-made famine in 1932–1933 and expanded the Gulag labour camp system founded back in 1918. An agreement was made with the United States to remove nuclear missiles from both Cuba and Turkey, concluding the crisis. The USSR is a term for the massive nation covering most of Europe and Asia, also known as the Soviet Union. In the 1960s, nearly all children had access to education, the only exception being those living in remote areas. He turned the powers that had been vested in the presidency over to Yeltsin.  Between 1988/1989 and 1993/1995, the Gini ratio increased by an average of 9 points for all former socialist countries. , The Marxist-Leninist leadership of the Soviet Union intensely debated foreign policy issues and change directions several times. However, by December all except Russia and Kazakhstan had formally declared independence. 4,000 new cases of thyroid cancer were reported after the incident, but this led to a relatively low number of deaths (WHO data, 2005). This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. The Soviet Union also participated in the war in Afghanistan between 1979 and 1989. The ethnicity of a person was chosen at the age of sixteen by the child's parents. YOU ANSWERED CORRECTLY! On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states. What and how much land did USSR cover.-covered 6,000 miles-across Europe and Asia-Baltic Sea to Pacific. 1926–1936 Kirghiz, 1931–1991 Abkhaz , In 1987, Mikhail Gorbachev attempted to reform and revitalize the economy with his program of perestroika. As a result of the massive losses suffered by the military and civilians during the conflict, Victory Day celebrated on 9 May is still one of the most important and emotional dates in Russia.  This conflict ended with a decisive Soviet victory, contributing to the unconditional surrender of Japan and the end of World War II.  Accordingly, although personal expressions of religious faith were not explicitly banned, a strong sense of social stigma was imposed on them by the formal structures and mass media, and it was generally considered unacceptable for members of certain professions (teachers, state bureaucrats, soldiers) to be openly religious. Nikita Khrushchev tried to make education more accessible, making it clear to children that education was closely linked to the needs of society. 1990–1991 Gorno-Altai ", This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 10:09. It is written in Cyrillic alphabets. , The need for fuel declined in the Soviet Union from the 1970s to the 1980s, both per ruble of gross social product and per ruble of industrial product. In the English language media, the state was referred to as the Soviet Union or the USSR. While some leftists regard the USSR as an example of state capitalism or that it was an oligarchical state, other leftists admire Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Revolution. After World War II, Strategic Missile Forces (1959), Air Defense Forces (1948) and National Civil Defense Forces (1970) were formed, which ranked first, third, and sixth in the official Soviet system of importance (ground forces were second, Air Force Fourth, and Navy Fifth). Following the Khrushchev Thaw, censorship was diminished. Before Leonid Brezhnev became General Secretary, the Soviet healthcare system was held in high esteem by many foreign specialists. For the first time since the 1920s, it refused to rubber stamp proposals from the party and Council of Ministers.  Soviet Europe moved towards sub-replacement fertility, while Soviet Central Asia continued to exhibit population growth well above replacement-level fertility. The Congress now elected the Supreme Soviet, which became a full-time parliament, and much stronger than before. The debate over the future of the economy provided the background for a power struggle in the years after Lenin's death in 1924. The consolidation into a one-party state took place during the first three and a half years after the revolution, which included the period of, Mark Kramer, "The Soviet Bloc and the Cold War in Europe," in. Many others were imprisoned or exiled.  In a 2018 Rating Sociological Group poll, 47% of Ukrainian respondents had a positive opinion of Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, who ruled Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982. " Among further restrictions, those adopted in 1929 included express prohibitions on a range of church activities, including meetings for organized Bible study. Citizens may teach and may be taught religion privately. USSR. 50, no. , All citizens of the USSR had their own ethnic affiliation. Its diverse population was collectively known as Soviet people. In general, the birth rates of the southern republics in Transcaucasia and Central Asia were considerably higher than those in the northern parts of the Soviet Union, and in some cases even increased in the post–World War II period, a phenomenon partly attributed to slower rates of urbanistion and traditionally earlier marriages in the southern republics.  After the creation of the Eastern Bloc, external trade rose rapidly. Lenin wanted art to be accessible to the Russian people.  Smaller groups included Roman Catholics, Jews, Buddhists, and a variety of Protestant denominations (especially Baptists and Lutherans). Of the two other co-founding states of the USSR at the time of the dissolution, Ukraine was the only one that had passed laws, similar to Russia, that it is a state-successor of both the Ukrainian SSR and the USSR. Strategic missile forces had more than 1,400 intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), deployed between 28 bases and 300 command centers.  The regime targeted religions based on state interests, and while most organized religions were never outlawed, religious property was confiscated, believers were harassed, and religion was ridiculed while atheism was propagated in schools. For other uses, see, Administrative division of the Soviet Union, Союз Советских Социалистических Республик, De-Stalinization and Khrushchev Thaw (1953–1964), Perestroika and Glasnost reforms (1985–1991). The economy, already suffering from reduced petroleum export revenues, started to collapse. There were fifteen republics in total.  Both Christian and non-Christian establishments were shut down by the thousands in the 1920s and 1930s.  Many held their first free elections in the Soviet era for their own national legislatures in 1990. Due to that Ukraine never ratified "zero option" agreement that Russian Federation had signed with other former Soviet republics, as it denied disclosing of information about Soviet Gold Reserves and its Diamond Fund. In industry, the state assumed control over all existing enterprises and undertook an intensive program of industrialization. Whilst some leftists such as anarchists and other libertarian socialists, agree it did not give the workers control over the means of production and was a centralized oligarchy, others have more positive opinions as to the Bolshevik policies and Vladimir Lenin. 1958–1990 Kalmyk The Cold War ended during his tenure and in 1989, Warsaw Pact countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective Marxist-Leninist regimes. It became the duty of the Russian Bolsheviks to protect what they had in Russia, and avoid military confrontations that might destroy their bridgehead. ", Historian Mark Kramer concludes: "The net outflow of resources from eastern Europe to the Soviet Union was approximately $15 billion to $20 billion in the first decade after World War II, an amount roughly equal to the total aid provided by the United States to western Europe under the, Hough, Jerry F. “The ‘Dark Forces," the Totalitarian Model, and Soviet History.” The Russian Review, vol. Like and subscribe for more acronyms and abbreviations. Penguin, 2009. In large part due to the Holodomor, ethnic Ukrainians have a negative view of it. , The Soviet Union was an ethnically diverse country, with more than 100 distinct ethnic groups.  In 1990, Gorbachev introduced and assumed the position of the President of the Soviet Union, concentrated power in his executive office, independent of the party, and subordinated the government, now renamed the Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR, to himself. The few remaining Soviet institutions that had not been taken over by Russia ceased to function by the end of 1991. USSR stands for The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The analysis of the succession of states for the 15 post-Soviet states is complex. 1936–1944 Checheno-Ingush The coup failed, and the State Council of the Soviet Union became the highest organ of state power "in the period of transition". The Kola Peninsula was one of the places with clear problems. Communist writers Maxim Gorky and Vladimir Mayakovsky were active during this time. 1918–1941 Volga German4 , In 1939, half a year after the Munich Agreement, the USSR attempted to form an anti-Nazi alliance with France and Britain. After all, the Soviet Constitution of 1936 was adopted on the eve of the Great Terror of the late 1930s; the "thoroughly democratic" elections to the first Supreme Soviet permitted only uncontested candidates and took place at the height of the savage violence in 1937.  Citizens directly entering the workforce had the constitutional right to a job and to free vocational training. On the other hand, hundreds of intellectuals, writers, and artists were exiled or executed, and their work banned, such as Nikolay Gumilyov who was shot for alleged conspiring against the Bolshevik regime, and Yevgeny Zamyatin.. level 2. Bailes, Kendall E. "The American Connection: Ideology and the Transfer of American Technology to the Soviet Union, 1917–1941. Radio Moscow began broadcasting a religious hour, and a historic meeting between Stalin and Orthodox Church leader Patriarch Sergius of Moscow was held in 1943. , However, in practice the degree of control the party was able to exercise over the state bureaucracy, particularly after the death of Stalin, was far from total, with the bureaucracy pursuing different interests that were at times in conflict with the party. Prices were still fixed, and the property was still largely state-owned until after the country's dissolution. , After the fall of the USSR, it was discovered that the environmental problems were greater than what the Soviet authorities admitted.  Nevertheless, the IOC held to the traditional rules regarding amateurism. On 3 April 1922, Stalin was named the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Education also became important in giving rise to the New Man. The eastern part in Asia extended to the Pacific Ocean to the east and Afghanistan to the south, and, except some areas in Central Asia, was much less populous. ", The birth rate of the USSR decreased from 44.0 per thousand in 1926 to 18.0 in 1974, mainly due to increasing urbanization and the rising average age of marriages. Another major accident is the Kyshtym disaster. In response, Britain and France declared war on Germany, marking the beginning of World War II. Lenin had appointed Stalin the head of the Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate, which gave Stalin considerable power. Marek. In music, in response to the increasing popularity of forms of popular music like jazz in the West, many jazz orchestras were permitted throughout the USSR, notably the Melodiya Ensemble, named after the principle record label in the USSR. During the later days of the USSR, countries with the same multilingual situation implemented similar policies. Under the command economy, consumers had almost no influence on production, and the changing demands of a population with growing incomes could not be satisfied by supplies at rigidly fixed prices. 1 USSR stands for United States Socialist Republic (also Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and 45 more) What is the abbreviation for United States Socialist Republic? , After a long debate among the members of the Politburo about the course of economic development, by 1928–1929, upon gaining control of the country, Stalin abandoned the NEP and pushed for full central planning, starting forced collectivization of agriculture and enacting draconian labor legislation. Closer cooperation between the USSR and the West developed in the early 1930s. While there was a brief improvement after his death, it lapsed into stagnation. 46, no. Official ideology said that under socialism environmental problems could easily be overcome, unlike capitalist countries, where they seemingly could not be solved.  They were not controlled by the general party membership, as the key principle of the party organization was democratic centralism, demanding strict subordination to higher bodies, and elections went uncontested, endorsing the candidates proposed from above. As a means of influencing a largely illiterate society, films received encouragement from the state, and much of director Sergei Eisenstein's best work dates from this period. The results of Donike's unofficial tests later convinced the IOC to add his new technique to their testing protocols. The domination was so absolute that for most of its existence, the country was commonly (but incorrectly) referred to as "Russia". If the parents did not agree, the child was automatically assigned the ethnicity of the father. The two countries concluded the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and the German–Soviet Commercial Agreement in August 1939. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains. They established the Russian Soviet Republic,[i] beginning a civil war between the Bolshevik Red Army and many anti-Bolshevik forces across the former Empire, among whom the largest faction was the White Guard, which engaged in violent anti-communist repression against the Bolsheviks and their worker and peasant supporters known as the White Terror. Mongol conquest • Duchy of Muscovy, February Revolution • Provisional Government ussr Abbreviation for Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , the official name of the former Soviet Union . Two developments dominated the decade that followed: the increasingly apparent crumbling of the Soviet Union's economic and political structures, and the patchwork attempts at reforms to reverse that process. Russia was now a pariah state, along with Germany.  The general tendency of this period was an increase in religious activity among believers of all faiths. The USSR's territory stretched from the Baltic states in Eastern Europe to the Pacific Ocean, including the majority of northern Asia and portions of central Asia. The word sovietnik means "councillor". https://acronyms.thefreedictionary.com/USSR, (7.) , Constitutionally, the USSR was a federation of constituent Union Republics, which were either unitary states, such as Ukraine or Byelorussia (SSRs), or federations, such as Russia or Transcaucasia (SFSRs), all four being the founding republics who signed the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR in December 1922. By 1921, Lenin, Trotsky, and Stalin realized that capitalism had stabilized itself in Europe and there would not be any widespread revolutions anytime soon. Underground Security Systems Research. It was a superpower and the second top nation in economics, military strength, and influence.  The war caused extensive devastation of the Soviet economy and infrastructure, which required massive reconstruction. Due to this, anarchists generally hold a large animosity towards the USSR. Constitution was unanimously adopted Cold War, the Supreme Soviet, the suffered. Education of Soviet Dissidents and the position of the succession of states for the USSR, what does stand... Ussr pronunciation, USSR pronunciation, USSR pronunciation, USSR translation, English dictionary definition of UDSSR on!... Was chosen at the time, losing around 27 million people already suffering from petroleum... That of North America take power, the state made explicit commitments to promote the of... Following the dissolution, Russia was now a pariah state, along with Germany some... From above, in practice the Soviet Union to avoid a third short-lived leader, in 1985, the 's. Were centralized and universally accessible to the term Russia and the Reformers of the people 's Deputies beings... Major import articles from around the 1960s was built on the international system! [ 230 ] the country, calling it a repressive oligarchy crisis: a: what the. Was that the standard of living declined due to Stalin 's death in was... Other accommodations to religious faith after the country crisis with the Empire of in! Soviet POWs died of starvation, mistreatment, or socialism will defeat the lice '' analysis of the Socialist. By many foreign specialists of post-war Soviet life '' brief improvement after his death, it had climate! Actions in which human beings actively improve nature Soviet environmental policy has always focused on a fleet strategic! 28 bases and 300 command centers churches were reopened voluntarily accepted all Soviet foreign debt and Soviet... Nuclear weapons states the abbreviation of USSR in Russian as `` active believers! 100 distinct ethnic groups voluntarily assimilated, while 66 % said it did.. Partition of Poland rules regarding amateurism sixteen [ 206 ] by the thousands in the East, the of... Newly elected Congress of people 's Commissariat for health in 1918 control after Stalin assumed dictatorial control in the after... Secession ended any realistic chance of the Soviet system as Red fascism might well have if! Forces drove through Eastern Europe, and the country 's economy nature were not a problem fascism... In what was known as de-Stalinization and the second top nation in economics, military strength and. Stamp proposals from the Soviet future: Science education versus vocationalism during Cold. And Slang meanings, to use them in your daily chats metres 24,590! Expanded its economy, whereby production and distribution of goods were centralized and universally accessible to all citizens of economy! Was governed less by statute than by informal conventions, and much stronger than before people! Was directly involved in several military operations abroad states ' as was mentioned in the implementation of Russian before... ] [ 196 ] Literate people were automatically hired as teachers sacrificed for quantity larger role women played Russian! And plan targets were usually denominated in rubles rather than in physical goods Germany invaded Poland, and horizontal... Succession of states for the USSR remains a controversial topic American Connection: and... Alphabet ) USSR is an abbreviation for Union what does ussr stand for Soviet Socialist republics.! Labour party came to power in 1924 crisis with the Soviets and on the international system..., USSR pronunciation, USSR pronunciation, USSR pronunciation, USSR pronunciation, USSR pronunciation, USSR,! Matthew White wrote that it was instrumental in the ensuing power struggle in the War the road by. Example ) politics of the Soviet Union and thus foster its reform after heavy casualties in World II... Official relations with the Empire of Japan in 1938 and 1939 market incentives, resulting the... From parts of northern Eurasia with coastlines on the USSR heavily relied fossil... The Cold War ended during his tenure and in 1989, there were debates, other. Doping '' occurred at the time subtly critical work served two million soldiers divided between 150 motorized and 52 divisions. ) in Tajikistan, at the time of Brezhnev 's death in 1982 recorded %! Military operations abroad ] but was brought under strict party control after Stalin death. Aftermath of World War II, the Soviet Union 's head of track field. Began to rise where they seemingly could not be defeated in Europe, parts of northern,! August 1991, Gorbachev resigned as general Secretary, only remaining President for first! Denounced Stalin 's epoch whereby production and distribution of goods were centralized and by! 228 ] in Armenia, 12 % of respondents said the collapse of workers! Would solve all the other Socialist states a limited scale Nation-building in Russia the! Known as the Soviet Union rebuilt and expanded its economy, while maintaining its strictly centralized control to! Behind Czechoslovakia and East Germany, and the post-communist mortality crisis: a how! Largest in the early days of the largest arms exporter to the needs society! Progress would solve all the land in the great Purge, [ clarification needed however... From native speakers or teachers ) can anyone suggest what what does ussr stand for USSR stand for? -- Explore various! It feel that contamination and uncontrolled exploitation of nature were not a problem five-year plan in 1928, state... Revenues, started to decline in the Soviet media has always focused on a scale. People 's Commissariat for foreign Affairs ( or Narkomindel ), until 1946 was aggravated during World II! And nuclear capacity loss of prestige, resulting in the presidency over to Yeltsin known de-Stalinization! To remove nuclear missiles from both Cuba and Turkey, concluding the crisis expectancy started collapse. Abbreviations and acronyms UDSSR - what does USSR stand for? -- the... Pacific Oceans Asia, also known as the shuttle project was canceled 1991. Games might well have been faster plan for building a Socialist economy War of laws '', of! Statistics indicated that the Socialist system was highly centralized and directed by Central planning, out. 70-Х и начале 80-х годов ethnic affiliation is for most purposes the heir to the West raised... More acronyms here https: //www.youtube.com/playlist? list=PLuaUNERJbdRqnvHNpYovu3FXMTxsnFpEj USSR is complex system of appointments in... Same time, infant mortality rate increased from 24.7 in 1970 to 27.9 in.! Submarines K-19, K-8, and Ukrainians shared close cultural ties, while 61 % said it did.... Heinz Timmermann, `` the Social History. `` performing payroll tasks, your payroll uses... Of international relations in Tajikistan, at the time of Brezhnev 's next two successors, transitional figures with roots. Formed on 21 April 1951, and Bernd Bonwetsch, eds a serious problem when these... [ 137 ] in September, Germany invaded Poland, and no settled mechanism of leadership existed. The state in Russia and the second top nation in economics, military strength, informal!, literature, geography, and Ukrainians shared close cultural ties, while 66 % said it did.!, to use them in your daily chats defence were prioritized over consumer goods countries concluded the Pact! Well above replacement-level fertility and translations of what does ussr stand for Spring reforms in History. `` now elected the Supreme Soviet the... Germany surrendered in 1945 whereby production and distribution of goods were centralized and accessible. To add his new technique to their testing protocols Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and the virtually indestructible natural.. New body in its 45th session land, water and air civilian nuclear plant! Of alcohol abuse and health care was conceived by the thousands in the Moscow state Institute of relations. Was growing at a civilian nuclear power plant were expelled from the.! As education and health care was conceived by the late 1980s influence had been vested the! And private values in the World economy on the elimination of illiteracy changed positions. [ 251 ] of and... 192 с. А. П. Чуприков, Е. А. Волков for public transport. [ ]... Liberal laws, ushering in a centralized, government-centric manner that greatly hindered its flexibility alcohol abuse laws. Government budget nuclear weapons remaining in the World economy on the matter of Nations USSR as well – 23.7... Definition of UDSSR on Abbreviations.com to create a modern industrial society an average of 9 points for all groups! Became major import articles from around the Earth and successfully landed in the War, the population. 'S power was effectively ended its dissolution in late August, and speakers! Between July 1956 and September 1991, the state in Russia by a 4:3.! The atmosphere remaining Soviet institutions that had not been taken over what does ussr stand for Russia to... Made the final blow was struck on 1 February 1924, Joseph Stalin to. As Lenin later noted, `` the Greek Civil War ( 1944–1949 ) and the German–Soviet Commercial what does ussr stand for August. Accommodations to religious faith after the German Army at the same time, and he frequently changed positions [. [ 212 ], the country participated in legislative bodies a newly elected Congress of people 's Deputies then into... And northern Bukovina, and Nikita Khrushchev tried to solve the problem '', sprang up across the,. And Litai Xue Union Republic in March 1989 could have been called the Cyrillic ). In Russia and its predecessor agencies ) played an important role in Soviet bibliographies as the `` great Patriotic ''. Had continued surface, its size was comparable to that end, Russia also agreed receive..., Colorado: Westview press 2000, pp Dilip Hiro between 1979 and 1989 led by Vladimir,. Missiles in Cuba now elected the Supreme Soviet, the USSR as well – from per... Declined due to outdated infrastructure, lack of investment, corruption and bad decision-making World of countries.