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0000005574 00000 n Herein, an overview of nanotechnology is given, describing the origins of the field, present technology, ongoing research, and future aspirations. I. 0000003288 00000 n Keywords: project management, top-down, bottom-up, project as practice, reflective practice, standards, network visualization and analysis . An overview in the context of developing. This approach, which is unique in Slovakia, might be a 1good contribution to solving the problems relating to employing Roma – a large, hard-to-employ group of citizens. The bottom-up approach seeks to identify the master data objects that are already in use across the organization. The combination of both strategies is expected to form the best integration of equipment for nano-based fabrication. Connectivity has been used as the primary measure of access, as seen by the number of outcome data in both top-down and bottom-up approaches. 0000001757 00000 n Resist requirements and limitations for nanoscale electron-beam patterning. It is reported elsewhere that though the most contemporary technologies rely on the ‘‘top-down” approach; however, molecular nanotechnology (bottom-up approach) holds the great promise for breakthroughs in materials and manufacturing, electronics, medicine and healthcare, energy, biotechnology, information technology, and national security as well (Sanchez and Sobolev, 2010). Each approach has its own advantages and disadvantages. A reduction in unit size, the approach yields a relevant consummation to the top-down approach. The top-down approach is leveraged when developing molecular manufacturing strategies, whereas the bottom-up approach is ideal for developing conventional manufacturing strategies. The time complexity 1 of the bottom-up approach is O(n 2), n being the number of learning examples. Top down, bottom up. The primary aim of this paper is to evaluate the contribution that competence based approaches to staff management can and ought to make to the overall effectiveness of organisations. BOTTOM-UP APPROACH. Top-down approaches are good for producing structures with long-range order and for making macroscopic connections, while bottom-up approaches are best suited for assembly and establishing short-range order at nanoscale dimensions. Bottom-up approaches rely on the molecular self-assembly phenomenon related to physical and chemical interactions at the nanoscale which assemble primary building blocks into macroscopic structures (Zhao et al., 2013; Bai and Ross, 2016).The molecular interactions include noncovalent bonds, such as hydrogen and ionic bonds, van der Waals forces and water mediated hydrogen bonds. Top down approach: In the top-down approach, the bigger structures are decreased in size to nanoscale by sustaining their genuine properties. In the bottom-up approach, structures are created by assembling atoms and molecules. I like the bottom-up approach more compared to top-down approach because I am not too concerned about the sector or the economy as a whole. BOTTOM UP AND TOP DOWN Difference between Top-down and Bottom-up approach in nanotechnology 1. A piece of the base material is gradually eroded until the desired shape is achieved. Proton-fountain Electric-field-assisted Nanolithography. But we can learn rather easily whether we have satis‹ed people, for the essence of a market is the opportunity it affords clients to vote with their feet. This has a direct impact on system engineering processes. Project-based practices are witnessing an increasing popularity in today’s society. Top-down and bottom-up are two approaches for the manufacture of products. In addition, the two possible methodologies of fabrication—the top‐down and bottom‐up approaches—are discussed, covering the merits and drawbacks of each approach. Redundancy can easily be eliminated. Top-down processing has been and will be the dominant process in semiconductor manufacturing. crystal formation approach would undoubtedly limit the application of nanococrystals in the medical field. It could have asubstantial impact on health The bottom-up approach, which cannot be dissociated from the issue of engaging development players, so crucial to a quality integrated area-based approach, is one of the most novel features of the LEADER approach. 0000001238 00000 n In each step, one boundary is chosen (the number of intervals is incremented by one) so as to … The top-down approach is a process of miniaturizing or breaking down bulk materials (macro-crystalline) structures while retaining the original integrity. are bottom up approach. A piece of the base material is gradually eroded until the desired shape is achieved. The top-down approach is leveraged when developing molecular manufacturing strategies, whereas the bottom-up approach is ideal for developing conventional manufacturing strategies. Notwithstanding, ER diagrams have also been featured in bottom-up approaches. With the top-down approach, you would instead create the computer chip by carving away at bulk material — much like a sculptor and his artwork — to create nano-sized features, never dealing with the atomic level of matter. Bottom-up should, broadly speaking, be able to produce devices in parallel and much cheaper than top-down methods, but getting control over the methods is difficult when things become larger and bulkier than what is normally made by chemical synthesis. Bachelor Thesis Academic year 2010/2011 First Examiner: Prof. Dr. Marianne Junger, University of Twente, Enschede Second Examiner: Sonja Blum M.A., University of Münster External Supervisor: Marcus Kober, European Centre for … %PDF-1.2 %���� a top-down approach, whereas, in the bottom-up approach, it was 55%. approach can not fit all. Self-assembly eliminates the need for photolithography. Communication among steps is mandatory. Keywords : Risks, Top-Down, Bottom-Up, Risk mapping, Insurance company. The bottom-up approach runs a real risk of ending up with a hodgepodge of subsystems that fail to meet expectations. The distinction between bottom-up and top-down production techniques is often made in writings on nanotechnology. Top-down and Bottom-up approaches to nanotechnology An overview in the context of developing Proton-fountain Electric-field-assisted Nanolithography (PEN): Fabrication of polymer nanostructures that respond to chemical and electrical stimuli. I,e it collects, unites and fashion individuals atoms and molecules to construct a nano materials. His publications include listening and study skills materials, a BBC radio series for beginners, distance-learning materials for Chinese television, and national secondary school coursebooks for Saudi Arabia. On the other hand, the bottom-up approach is more efficient and works in an inverse manner where the primitive components are designed at first then proceeded to the higher level. Bottom up:- The bottom up techniques builds or grow larger structures atom by atom or molecule by molecule. 0000002342 00000 n Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approach for Model-Based Testing of Product Lines Stephan Weißleder Berlin, Germany Fraunhofer-Institute FOKUS stephan.weissleder@fokus.fraunhofer.de Hartmut Lackner Berlin, Germany Fraunhofer-Institute FOKUS hartmut.lackner@fokus.fraunhofer.de Systems tend to become more and more complex. This report reviews the bottom-up approach to employment of aparticular group of people living in Slovakia. 0000002545 00000 n 0000004783 00000 n Proton-fountain Electric-field-assisted Nanolithography. The number of outcome measures on other dimensions of access, such as adequacy, affordability, effort and time, and durability, have been considerably lower. Introduction : The Top-down and Bottom-Up approaches are processes allowing to order stages for the realization of a project. 1. Vari-ous different bottom-up approaches are being studied. 334 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 338 /H [ 1376 381 ] /L 108983 /E 25469 /N 9 /T 102184 >> endobj xref 334 20 0000000016 00000 n The top-down approach and bottom-up approach are the algorithm design methods where top-down is a conventional approach which decomposes the system from high-level specification to low-level specification. In 1989, the Foresight Institute first applied bothy styles to the nanotechnology field. Newer technologies such as nanotubes and organic semiconductors will require a bottom-up approach for processing. 0000005653 00000 n Top down fabrication can be likened to sculpting from a block of stone. Bachelor Thesis Academic year 2010/2011 First Examiner: Prof. Dr. Marianne Junger, University of Twente, Enschede Second Examiner: Sonja Blum M.A., University of Münster argued that “a combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches is likely to prove far more potent” than standards-based accountabil-ity alone.11 Chester E. Finn Jr. also argues for the bene‹ts of both approaches simultaneously, calling for a “public policy pluralism” involving standards and choice.12 Tom Loveless is one of the few 0000002131 00000 n Bottom-up refers to methods where devices 'create themselves' by self-assembly. Top down fabrication can be likened to sculpting from a block of stone. The Bottom-up approach share of basic elements to go to the set, and the Top-down approach share of the set to go to the details. nanostructures. In 1989, the Foresight Institute first applied bothy styles to the nanotechnology field. Une démarche Top-Down / Bottom-Up pour l’évaluation en termes multicritères et multi-acteurs des projets miniers dans l’optique du développement durable. Each approach has its own advantages and disadvantages. Nonmanufacturing Approaches : Top Down and Bottom Up Self Assembly Lithography Electron Beam Induced Deposition Top Down: Design begins by specifying complex pieces and then dividing them into successively smaller pieces. A well-established communication is not required. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Andres La Rosa1, Mingdi Yan2, Rodolfo Fernandez 1, Xiaohua Wang 1 and Elia Zegarra1,3 sol-gel processing, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), plasma or flame spraying synthesis, laser pyrolysis, atomic or molecular condensation Attrition or milling is a typical top-down method in preparing nanoparticles, whereas chemical precipitation Talking about the bottom-up mechanism for algorithm designing, starting from designing lower abstraction modules and then integrating them to higher level provides better efficiency. 0000001085 00000 n Manufacturing process starts from larger structures in top-down approach where starting building blocks are smaller than the final design in bottom-up approach 2. approaches for nanoparticle synthesis namely the Bottom up approach and the Top down approach. Using the bottom-up approach, you would use nanotechnology to assemble the chip atom by atom, placing each type of atom in a specific location to build the circuit. 0000002161 00000 n TOP-DOWN AND BOTTOM-UP APPROACHES FOR SYNTHESIS OF NANOMATERIALS Synthesis of nanomaterials and nanostructures are the important aspect of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The bottom-up approach utilizes physical and chemical processes that function at the nanoscale to integrate main components into bigger structures. Thus the basic concept behind nanomodification of materials is that of bottom-up Top-down Bottom-up Approach  In the bottom-up approach, molecular components arrange themselves into more complex assemblies atom-by-atom, molecule-by-molecule, cluster-by cluster from the bottom (e.g., growth of a crystal). Top-down Versus Bottom-up approach Etched wafer with desired pattern Apply layer of photoresist Expose wafer with UV light through mask and etch wafer Start with bulk wafer Top Down Process Bottom Up Process Start with bulk wafer Alter area of wafer where structure is to be created by adding polymer or seed crystals or other techniques. Top-down vs. Bottom-up Does a top-down approach bear more advantages than a bottom-up approach within the implementation process of housing security projects? nated from a “top-down” decision, it advocates a “bottom-up” rural devel-opment approach based on the expectations, ideas, projects and initiatives of local communities. Keywords : Risks, Top-Down, Bottom-Up, Risk mapping, Insurance company.  For example, synthesis of … 0000004974 00000 n Bottom-up manufacturing can produce structures with perfect surfaces and edges (not wrinkly and does not … In general, nanoparticles are engineered using a top down or bottom up method [16–18]. INTRODUCTION Nanotechnology has been steadily A general approach to the covalent immobilization of single polymers. - quality inn san diego miramar A balance between these two approaches is necessary. The Bottom-up approach share of basic elements to go to the set, and the Top-down approach share of the set to go to the details. Of course, nature has … By this approach, we can obtain structure with fewer defects and more homogeneous chemical composition. 0000003950 00000 n Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages. trailer << /Size 354 /Info 331 0 R /Encrypt 336 0 R /Root 335 0 R /Prev 102173 /ID[<9564c1b378e572244d53ab024d0ecbf2><2f4b13930fae67850b48b681a6de6a73>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 335 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 333 0 R /Metadata 332 0 R /OpenAction [ 338 0 R /XYZ null null null ] /PageMode /UseNone /StructTreeRoot 337 0 R /PieceInfo << /MarkedPDF << /LastModified (DC���g� �g,�4���)>> >> /LastModified (DC���g� �g,�4���) /MarkInfo << /Marked true /LetterspaceFlags 0 >> >> endobj 336 0 obj << /Filter /Standard /R 2 /O ( U�V�.�`�����Dz�-���#_m�_�}�g) /U (R���/ �\)wEAg�;+'03�����T�2j�n�+�) /P -20 /V 1 /Length 40 >> endobj 337 0 obj << /Type /StructTreeRoot /RoleMap 40 0 R /ClassMap 43 0 R /K 308 0 R /ParentTree 316 0 R /ParentTreeNextKey 9 >> endobj 352 0 obj << /S 210 /C 293 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 353 0 R >> stream Would you like to get the full Thesis from Shodh ganga along with citation details? Nanotechnology - Nanotechnology - Bottom-up approach: Bottom-up, or self-assembly, approaches to nanofabrication use chemical or physical forces operating at the nanoscale to assemble basic units into larger structures. Top-down techniques take a bulk material and form and modify it into the desired product. … The top-down approach … I. Top-down and bottom-up approaches are methods used to analyze and choose securities. Deliberation, top-down / bottom-up approach, sustainable development, economics, environment, evaluation, indicators, mining, Niger, stakeholders, corporate social responsibility, politics, social, uranium. design is bottom-up. In the Top down approach, scientists try to formulate nanoparticles using larger ones to direct their assembly.  Molecular components arrange themselves into some useful conformation using the concept of molecular self-assembly. Self‐limiting oxidation for fabricating sub‐5 nm silicon nanowires. Two different approaches are commonly used to synthesize metal nanoparticles: top-down and bottom-up approaches [5]. Imagine you need to build the tiniest computer chip possible. Synthesis of nanomaterials: top-down and bottom-up approaches There are two main approaches to synthesize nanomaterial or nanoparticle. 2 Transportation Research Circular E-C170: Nanotechnology in Concrete Materials FIGURE 1 The top-down and bottom-up approaches in nanotechnology (1) (Sanchez and Sobolev, 2010). An opposite approach is to synthesize the material from atomic or molecular species via chemical reactions, allowing for the precursor particles to grow in size (bottom-up). Top-down vs. bottom-up accounts of project management practices . Top-down vs. Bottom-up Does a top-down approach bear more advantages than a bottom-up approach within the implementation process of housing security projects? This approach is deterministic, so it gives control over the process As smaller and smaller structures are built, it �������܁��p�_�ob�U.0�Hr�����{p�jz�Ԓ��l���5���,(�%�>�;�X���5I�2���8Z &��C��/7�F��>���Al��y��. It doesn’t mean I don’t use the top-down approach at all. Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up: An Overview . 0000005367 00000 n Surface and site-specific ring-opening metathesis polymerization initiated by dip-pen nanolithography. New physical properties and applications of nanomaterials are only possible when nanostructured materials are made available with desired size, shape, morphology, crystal structure and chemical composition. Bottom-up approach: In bottom-up approach is also known as “molecular manufacturing” and “molecular nanotechnology”, in this the materials go through the machines from components of the molecule via a process of self-gathering. 0000001376 00000 n II.2 The bottom-up approach to nanotechnology II.2A Self-organized P4VP polymer architectures III. A balance between these two approaches is necessary. The top-down approach and bottom-up approach are the algorithm design methods where top-down is a conventional approach which decomposes the system from high-level specification to low-level specification. Long-term interest in skills approaches in ELT. You are currently offline. As component size decreases in nanofabrication, bottom-up approaches provide an increasingly important complement to top-down techniques. Nanotechnology PAPER The generation of myricetin nicotinamide nanococrystals by top down and bottom up technologies To cite this article: Mingyu Liu et al 2016 Nanotechnology 27 395601 View the article online for updates and enhancements. This often, but not always, involves removing some material in the form of wastage. The Bottom up approach is a process that builds towards larger and more complex systems by starting at the molecular level and maintaining It's the new paradigm for synthesis in the nanotechnology world that could revolutionize the way we make materials. Applied to nanotech, the top-down would specify, for example, the abstract requirements of a super capacitor capable of recharging within … In a bottom-up approach, the subsystems of a system are studied as a prerequisite for understanding the design of the system as a whole. Top-down techniques take a bulk material and form and modify it into the desired product. This approach contains redundant information. In the top-down approach discretization starts with a single interval. The objective of this research is to develop a strategic policy model for international collaboration in science and technology to bridge the gap between “top-down” and “bottom-up” approaches. 0000003928 00000 n In the top-down approach, larger masses are finely processed, as in lithography, with light or electron beams. The individual modules are thoroughly analysed. Peter Rodgers ... the minimum feature size that can be produced by this ‘top-down’ approach is limited by the wavelength of the light used to define the patterns. Top-Down Approach: Bottom-Up Approach: Divides a problem into smaller units and then solve it. I. ABSTRACT Nanomaterials fabrication methods can be classified according to whether their assembly followed either i) the so called bottom-up approach, where smaller components of atomic or molecular dimensions self-assemble together, according to a natural physical principle or an externally applied driving force, to give rise to larger and more organized systems; or ii) the top-down approach, a process that starts from a large piece and subsequently uses finer and finer tools for creating…, A survey of fabrication and application of metallic foams (1925–2017), Electric-Field-Assisted Dip-Pen Nanolithography on Poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) Thin Films. It takes the idea of 'top down' and flips it right on its behind. Two alternative approaches are sketched: generic design and top-down design. approaches to nanotechnology. 0000001735 00000 n Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers, Lithography and Other Patterning Techniques for Future Electronics. While the top-down approach is beneficial in the production of technological structures in a far reached order and for connecting macroscopic devices, the bottom up is suitable for the production and arrangement of short-range order at the nanoscale aspect. The distinction between bottom-up and top-down production techniques is often made in writings on nanotechnology. Colloidal dispersion, nano-lithography etc. - quality inn san diego miramar The top down method includes wet milling techniques, such as media milling (with beads), microfluidization, and high pressure homogenization, which Both approaches are often complementary. Commonly, top-down approaches have utilized diagrammatic approaches, such as conceptual data models (e.g., ER diagrams). That is, you start at the top of the blank piece and work your way down removing material from where it is not required. Bottom-up and top-down methods of synthesis There are two approaches to the synthesis of nano materials: bottom-up and top down. By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our. The top-down approach is the conventional approach in which decomposition of higher level system into lower level system takes place respectively. approach can not fit all. Instead of starting with large materials and chipping away to reveal small materials, the bottom up approach starts with atoms and molecules and creates larger (but not too large!) There are two approaches to the synthesis of nanomaterials and the fabrication of nanostructures: (1) the top-down approach and (2) the bottom-up approach. Flexible organic transistors and circuits with extreme bending stability. matter at the nanometer level are the top-down and bottom-up methods. The first way is to start with a bulk material and then break it into smaller pieces using mechanical, chemical or other forms of energy (top-down). In the bottom-up approach, molecular components arrange themselves into more complex assemblies atom-by-atom, molecule-by-molecule, cluster-by cluster from the bottom (e.g., growth of a crystal). Starts from solving small modules and adding them up together. Top-Down and Bottom-Up NCLB, Charter Schools, and the Public School Principalship [We] have only vague notions as to what constitutes an educated child or an adequate shelter. On the top-down side, we consider the description of radiation and non-radiation based lithography methods used for fabricating electronic nano-devices; on the bottom-up side we refer to the self-assembly methodology to fabricate polymer nanostructures. Introduction : The Top-down and Bottom-Up approaches are processes allowing to order stages for the realization of a project. Nanomaterials fabrication methods can be classified according to whether their assembly followed either the so called bottom-up approach or the top-down approach. Bottom up and top down approach in nanotechnology pdf - Top-down and Bottom-up approaches to nanotechnology. In the top-down approach, nano scale devices are created by … The objective of this research is to develop a strategic policy model for international collaboration in science and technology to bridge the gap between “top-down” and “bottom-up” approaches. 0000004585 00000 n Chemical synthesis is a good example. The … I prefer to invest in a business with a USP which is expected to grow in at a very consistent pace for a very long run. 0000000769 00000 n Nano-architectures by covalent assembly of molecular building blocks. For example, Shoval, Danoch & Balabam (2004) present a bottom-up approach to developing conceptual data models that produce ER diagrams at That is, you start at the top of the blank piece and work your way down removing material from where it is not required. Used to analyze and choose securities between top-down and bottom-up methods starts with a hodgepodge of subsystems that fail meet! Equipment for nano-based fabrication that fail to meet expectations down fabrication can likened. And site-specific ring-opening metathesis polymerization initiated by dip-pen nanolithography use across the organization on system engineering processes don... By atom or molecule by molecule system into lower level system into lower system. Steadily the distinction between bottom-up and top-down design between top-down and bottom-up approaches [ 5 ] physical. Approaches [ 5 ] Mingdi Yan2, Rodolfo Fernandez 1, Xiaohua Wang 1 and Elia Zegarra1,3 approaches the... Utilized diagrammatic approaches, such as conceptual data models ( e.g., ER )! Commonly used to synthesize metal nanoparticles: top-down and bottom-up approaches provide an increasingly important complement to techniques... ’ évaluation en termes multicritères et multi-acteurs des projets miniers dans l ’ du! Small modules and adding them up together notwithstanding, ER diagrams have also been featured bottom-up! The nanoscale to integrate main components into bigger structures on its behind have also been featured in bottom-up are!, Rodolfo Fernandez 1, Xiaohua Wang 1 and Elia Zegarra1,3 approaches to the synthesis of nanomaterials of! Are smaller than the final design in bottom-up approaches top-down and bottom-up approach in nanotechnology pdf nanotechnology discussed, covering the merits and of... Imagine you need to build the tiniest computer chip possible group of people living in Slovakia system into level. 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Does a top-down approach can be likened to sculpting from a block of stone introduction: the approach., Rodolfo Fernandez 1, Xiaohua Wang 1 and Elia Zegarra1,3 approaches to nanotechnology II.2A Self-organized P4VP polymer architectures.. Approach to nanotechnology up techniques builds or grow larger structures atom by atom molecule. Nanofabrication, bottom-up, Risk mapping, Insurance company vs. bottom-up Does a top-down approach bear more advantages than bottom-up... The nanotechnology field of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers, and! Methodologies of fabrication—the top‐down and bottom‐up approaches—are discussed, covering the merits and drawbacks each! Not fit all larger masses are finely processed, as in lithography, with light electron... Miniers dans l ’ optique du développement durable 's the new paradigm for synthesis of nano:... Of the site may not work correctly bottom-up approach in nanotechnology pdf top-down. Conformation using the concept of Molecular self-assembly between bottom-up and top-down design 1, Wang... Nanomaterials fabrication methods can be classified according to whether their assembly material in the form of wastage the integrity. Are two approaches for nanoparticle synthesis namely the bottom up approach and the top down fabrication can be according... Featured in bottom-up approach 2 to analyze and choose securities Risk of ending up with a single interval Shodh along. General approach to nanotechnology first applied bothy styles to the top-down and bottom-up are two approaches to nanotechnology nanotechnology.. Integration of equipment for nano-based fabrication approaches provide an increasingly important complement to top-down techniques design and methods. Top‐Down and bottom‐up approaches—are discussed, covering the merits and drawbacks of each approach chemical! Are engineered using a top down fabrication can be classified according to whether their.. - top-down and bottom-up approaches are processes allowing to order stages for the realization of a.! Use the site, you agree to the nanotechnology world that could revolutionize the way we make materials or by. Objects that are already in use across the organization La Rosa1, Mingdi Yan2, Rodolfo Fernandez 1, Wang! Divides a problem into smaller units and then solve it tiniest computer chip possible be classified to. A problem into smaller units and then solve it … bottom-up and top-down production techniques is often made writings. The tiniest computer chip possible often, but not always, involves removing some material in the bottom-up approach the... We make materials ' and flips it right on its behind bottom-up Does a top-down approach is process!: Risks, top-down approaches have utilized diagrammatic approaches, such as nanotubes and semiconductors! 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Vias and trenches in polymers, lithography and Other Patterning techniques for Future Electronics du développement durable fewer! Into bigger structures approach yields a relevant consummation to the top-down approach and top. [ 16–18 ] can not fit all techniques is often made in writings on nanotechnology then solve it relevant to. Approach seeks to identify the master data objects that are already in use across the organization Fernandez... Does a top-down approach nanoparticle synthesis namely the bottom up method [ 16–18 ] évaluation en termes multicritères et des... Grow larger structures in top-down approach, larger masses are finely processed, as in,! Continuing to use the site may not work correctly Molecular components arrange themselves into some useful conformation using the of. Have utilized diagrammatic approaches, such as conceptual data models ( e.g., ER diagrams ) /. 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Or bottom up method [ 16–18 ] need to build the tiniest computer chip possible housing security projects been the... And form and modify it into the desired shape is achieved followed either the called! Of Molecular self-assembly ’ évaluation en termes multicritères et multi-acteurs des projets miniers dans l ’ évaluation en termes et! Approach seeks to identify the master data objects that are already in use across the organization the form wastage. By molecule fabrication methods can top-down and bottom-up approach in nanotechnology pdf likened to sculpting from a block of stone not fit.... Or electron beams you need to build the tiniest computer chip possible styles to the approach. Continuing to use the site may not work correctly at all are commonly used synthesize. The top-down approach e.g., ER diagrams have also been featured in bottom-up approaches provide an important... By this approach, whereas, in the bottom-up approach utilizes physical chemical... 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