aircraft performance phak

Amplified checklists that provide additional information on the procedures follow the abbreviated checklist. Individuals can enroll for the e- mail service at the link above. aircraft performance in normal flight, as well as with system failures. All pilots who maintain or perform preventive maintenance must make an entry in the maintenance record of the aircraft. For more information on aircraft systems, refer to Chapter 6, Aircraft Systems. 2008 is blue, 2016, orange. A special flight permit may be issued to allow the operation of an overweight aircraft for flight beyond its normal range over water or land areas where adequate landing facilities or fuel is not available. In addition to the markings listed above, small multi-engine airplanes will have a red radial line to indicate single-engine minimum controllable airspeed (VMC). Ground Speed is the vector sum of aircraft … 1 prepared by the General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA). Any exemptions from the applicable airworthiness standards are briefly noted here and the exemption number given. The 100-hour limitation may be exceeded by not more than 10 hours while en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done. ft/min. If the inoperative item is not required, and the aircraft can be safely operated without it, the deferral may be made. Preflight planning should include a check of performance charts to determine if the aircraft’s weight may contribute to hazardous flight operations. Manufacturers supply maintenance manuals, parts catalogs, and other service information that should be used in maintaining the aircraft. All aircraft under 12,500 pounds (except turbojet/ turbopropeller-powered multi-engine airplanes and turbine powered rotorcraft), used to carry passengers for hire, must have received a 100-hour inspection within the preceding 100 hours of time in service and have been approved for return to service. The use of this data in flying operations is mandatory for safe and efficient operation. The Weight and Balance/Equipment List section contains all the information required by the FAA to calculate the weight and balance of an aircraft. If maintenance or parts are not readily available at that location, a special flight permit can be obtained from the nearest FSDO. Today, composites can be found in aircraft as varied as gliders to most new helicopters. This page was last modified on 17 February 2012, at 01:38. The interval depends upon the type of operations in which the aircraft is engaged. The registered owner/operator of an aircraft is responsible for: Knowledge of an aircraft’s AFM/POH and documents such as ADs help a pilot to have ready access to pertinent information needed to safely fly a particular aircraft. An Amplified Procedures area follows the checklists to provide more detailed information about the various previously mentioned procedures. For example, if the position lights (installed equipment) were discovered to be inoperative prior to a daytime flight, the pilot would follow the requirements of 14 CFR section 91.213(d). Using the deferral provision of 14 CFR section 91.213(d), the pilot determines whether the inoperative equipment is required by type design, 14 CFR, or ADs. To help determine if an AD applies to an amateur-built aircraft, contact the local FSDO. The V-g Diagram, a plot of the aircraft's available load factor (G) versus velocity (V), is a fundamental tool in determining aircraft performance, most notably its cornering speed. SDP is a theoretical pressure altitude, but aircraft operate in a nonstandard atmosphere and the term density altitude is used for correlating aerodynamic performance in the nonstandard atmosphere. • When 50 percent of the battery useful life (or, for rechargeable batteries, 50 percent of useful life of the charge) has expired. There are exceptions. I had downloaded the 2008 version from the FAA website, but this has since been updated to the 2016 version. Upon written request by an operator, the local FSDO may issue the appropriate make and model MMEL, along with an LOA, and the preamble. Paper copies of the Summary of Airworthiness Directives and the AD Biweekly may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. An annual inspection, or an inspection for the issuance of an Airworthiness Certificate may be substituted for a required 100-hour inspection. Owners/operators are reminded there is no provision to overfly the maximum hour requirement of an AD unless it is specifically written into the AD. The TAS, along with the heading, gives the aircraft velocity relative to the atmosphere. The aircraft is registered under the laws of a foreign country. Repairs and alterations are classified as either major or minor. RECAT-EU. Figure 8-6 is an example of a typical performance graph. The manual provides general information about the operation of an aircraft, is not kept current, and cannot be substituted for the AFM/POH. This does not apply to batteries that are essentially unaffected during storage intervals, such as water-activated batteries. APC. The date of completion of the work performed. The annual and 100-hour inspection requirements do not apply to large (over 12,500 pounds) airplanes, turbojets, or turbopropeller-powered multi-engine airplanes or to aircraft for which the owner complies with a progressive inspection program. The last segment of the General section contains definitions, abbreviations, explanations of symbology, and some of the terminology used in the POH. For example, the ability of an aircraft to land and take off in a very short distance is an important factor to the pilot who operates in … Manufacturers include sample weight and balance problems. Manufacturers may include an optional subsection titled “Abnormal Procedures.” This subsection describes recommended procedures for handling malfunctions that are not considered emergencies. POHs and owner/information manuals contain a section devoted to a systematic method of performing a preflight inspection. The excess time used to reach a place where the inspection can be done must be included in computing the next 100 hours of time in service. IAS kt. The aircraft’s registration is canceled upon written request of the certificate holder. These placards are located in conspicuous places and are reproduced in the Limitations section or as directed by an Airworthiness Directive (AD). [Figure 8-10]. Before an aircraft can be flown legally, it must be registered with the FAA Aircraft Registry. It also improves mission capability, increases the reliability and safety of flight, and eases the pilot workload. For example, should a component fail that is not listed in the MEL as deferrable (the tachometer, flaps, or stall warning device, for example), then repairs are required to be performed prior to departure. Add / remove filters (blank filters are ignored) Add All Categories Intial Climb Climb to FL 150 Climb to FL 240 Cruise Approach. A description of the work, such as “changed oil (Shell Aero-50) at 2,345 hours.”. What the runway's made of, surface contamination, and runway slope are the most critical factors that you should pay attention to. The Airworthiness Certificate must be displayed in the aircraft so it is legible to the passengers and crew whenever it is operated. Although maintenance requirements vary for different types of aircraft, experience shows that aircraft need some type of preventive maintenance every 25 hours of flying time or less, and minor maintenance at least every 100 hours. Weight and Loading Distribution contains the maximum certificated weights, as well as the center of gravity (CG) range. Figure 8-9 illustrates a Standard Airworthiness Certificate, and an explanation of each item in the certificate follows. The certificate holder loses United States citizenship. kt. Most manufacturers include a table of contents, which identifies the order of the entire manual by section number and title. Aircraft Performance GSW-11 40. Notifying the FAA Aircraft Registry immediately of any change of permanent mailing address, or of the sale or export of the aircraft, or of the loss of the eligibility to register an aircraft. For ready reference, many aircraft owners have a chronological listing of the pertinent ADs in the back of their aircraft, engine, and propeller maintenance records. Indicates the manufacturer, make, and model of the aircraft. (Refer to 14 CFR section 47.41.). The “N” indicates the aircraft is registered in the United States. If a special flight permit is needed, assistance and the necessary forms may be obtained from the local FSDO or Designated Airworthiness Representative (DAR). View 31 TW-Aircraft Performance.docx from AS 121 at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. For modifications of experimental aircraft, refer to the operating limitations issued to that aircraft. Change ). Modifications in accordance with FAA Order 8130.2, Airworthiness Certification of Aircraft and Related Products, may require the notification of the issuing authority. For more information on use of the charts, graphs, and tables, refer to Chapter 10, Aircraft Performance. [Figure 8-1] A red line on the ASI shows the airspeed limit beyond which structural damage could occur. Each aircraft comes with documentation and a set of manuals with which a pilot must be familiar in order to fly that aircraft. To an air combat pilot, cornering speed is the point where the pilot can pull in the pitch axis without fear of stalling or over-stressing the aircraft, producing the tightest possible turn. For example, an AD may require a repetitive inspection each 50 hours of operation, meaning the particular inspection shall be accomplished and recorded every 50 hours of time in service. An aircraft engine, or powerplant, produces thrust to propel an aircraft. [Figure 8-4] Some instruments may have a yellow arc to indicate a caution area. An expiration date for replacing (or recharging) the battery must be legibly marked on the outside of the transmitter and entered in the aircraft maintenance record. This inspection must be performed by an FAA-certificated A&P mechanic, an appropriately rated FAA-certificated repair station, or by the aircraft manufacturer. ( Log Out /  As I just got the book in the mail two days ago and am only reading chapter 2 I can’t give a full review, but here’s what I’ve got so far, and I’ll update as I keep reading. Pressure Altitude. • The presence of a sufficient signal radiated from its antenna Indicates the category in which the aircraft must be operated. Requirements for registration of these aircraft differ from those of other aircraft. IAS kt. 14 CFR section 91.413 requires that before a transponder can be used under 14 CFR section 91.215(a), it shall be tested and inspected within the preceding 24 months. Pressure altitude is the height above a standard datum plane (SDP), which is a theoretical level where … In order to account properly for the nonstandard atmosphere, certain related terms must be defined. Chapter 7: Aircraft Systems (PDF, 17.4 MB) Chapter 8: Flight Instruments (PDF, 12.8 MB) Chapter 9: Flight Manuals and Other Documents (PDF, 10.8 MB) Chapter 10: Weight and Balance (PDF, 5.1 MB) Chapter 11: Aircraft Performance (PDF, 14.3 MB) Chapter 12: Weather Theory (PDF, 12.8 MB) Chapter 13: Aviation Weather Services (PDF, 13 MB) Performance and Limitations (PHAK C11) The performance or operational information section of the Aircraft Flight Manual/Pilot’s Operating Handbook (AFM/ POH) contains the operating data for the aircraft; that is, the data pertaining to takeoff, climb, range, endurance, descent, and landing. In this case, N2631A is the registration number assigned to this airplane. An Airworthiness Certificate is issued by a representative of the FAA after the aircraft has been inspected, is found to meet the requirements of 14 CFR part 21, and is in condition for safe operation. They contain basic facts, information, and/or instructions for the pilot about the operation of an aircraft, flying techniques, etc., and are intended to be kept at hand for ready reference. The appropriate information is inserted into the flight manual at the time the equipment is installed. It includes considerations for hangaring, tie-down, and general storage procedures for the aircraft. LSA receive a pink special airworthiness certificate. Removing and replacing self-contained, front instrument panel-mounted navigation and communication devices employing tray-mounted connectors that connect the unit when the unit is installed into the instrument panel; excluding automatic flight control systems, transponders, and microwave frequency distance measuring equipment (DME). This chapter covers airplane flight manuals (AFM), the pilot’s operating handbook (POH), and aircraft documents pertaining to ownership, airworthiness, maintenance, and operations with inoperative equipment. Having a current Federal Communications Commission (FCC) radio station license if equipped with radios, including emergency locator transmitter (ELT), if operated outside of the United States. Manufacturers may first show an emergency checklist in an abbreviated form, with the order of items reflecting the sequence of action. 14 CFR requires that all aircraft instruments and installed equipment be operative prior to each departure. Reciprocating engines and turboprop engines work in combination with a propeller to produce thrust. Knowledge of these required documents and manuals is essential for a pilot to conduct a safe flight. (Sport pilots operating LSA should refer to 14 CFR part 65 for maintenance privileges.) This is influenced by the kind of operation, climatic conditions, storage facilities, age, and construction of the aircraft. Indicates the manufacturer’s serial number assigned to the aircraft, as noted on the aircraft data plate. A period of 12 calendar months extends from any day of a month to the last day of the same month the following year. This is called the never-exceed speed (VNE). With IFCS, a pilot is able to maintain control and safely land an aircraft that has suffered a failure to a control surface or damage to the airframe. Having a current Airworthiness Certificate and a Certificate of Aircraft Registration in the aircraft. The following guidelines are provided for LSA registration, but a more detailed explanation can be found on the FAA website at http//www.faa.gov. ROC ft/min. The typical AFM/POH contains the following nine sections: General; Limitations; Emergency Procedures; Normal Procedures; Performance; Weight and Balance/Equipment List; Systems Description; Handling, Service, and Maintenance; and Supplements. This is the speed used for measuring the aircraft performance. By understanding the operations, limitations, and performance characteristics of the aircraft, the pilot can make good flight decisions. A yellow arc indicates the speed range between maximum structural cruising speed (VNO) and VNE. The ELT must be attached to the airplane in such a manner that the probablity of damage to the transmitter in the event of crash impact is minimized. To avoid missing important steps, always use the appropriate checklists when available. However, all applicable ADs that are due must be complied with before the flight. In the example given in the previous text, the pilot may be operating from an airport at 500 MSL, but he or she must calculate performance as if the airport were located at 5,000 feet. Regular and proper maintenance ensures that an aircraft meets an acceptable standard of airworthiness throughout its operational life. A green arc depicts the normal operating speed range, with the upper end at VNO, and the lower end at stalling speed at maximum weight with the landing gear and flaps retracted (VS1). This section begins with a list of the airspeeds for normal operations. The inspection shall be performed by a certificated airframe and powerplant (A&P) mechanic who holds an inspection authorization (IA) by the manufacturer of the aircraft or by a certificated and appropriately rated repair station. Any reciprocating engine or single-engine turbojet/ turbopropeller-powered small aircraft (12,500 pounds and under) flown for business or pleasure and not flown for compensation or hire is required to be inspected at least annually. The second thing I noticed was that the chapters are in a different order and some have been renamed. (In other words, ignore adjustments for gross weight, wind, and obstacles). Preventive maintenance is considered to be simple or minor preservation operations and the replacement of small standard parts, not involving complex assembly operations. kt. Consistent adherence to approved checklists is a sign of a disciplined and competent pilot. Included are such items as wingspan, maximum height, overall length, wheelbase length, main landing gear track width, diameter of the rotor system, maximum propeller diameter, propeller ground clearance, minimum turning radius, and wing area. Terms and Conditions. 2016’s Chapter 2 “Aeronautical Decision-Making” was Chapter 17 in the 2008 edition. Its popularity is due to simplicity and minimal paperwork. I decided to order the new version in print to motivate me to study more. Additionally, an aircraft used for flight instruction for hire, when provided by the person giving the flight instruction, must also have received a 100-hour inspection. The discussion that follows assumes that the pilot wishes to defer maintenance that would ordinarily be required prior to flight. A Standard Airworthiness Certificate remains in effect if the aircraft receives the required maintenance and is properly registered in the United States. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. This section also describes preventive maintenance that may be accomplished by certificated pilots, as well as the manufacturer’s recommended ground handling procedures. A pilot must comply with this information which is specific to a particular make and model aircraft, usually by serial number. Removal, installation, and repair of landing gear tires and shock cords; servicing landing gear shock struts by adding oil, air, or both; servicing gear wheel bearings; replacing defective safety wiring or cotter keys; lubrication not requiring disassembly other than removal of nonstructural items such as cover plates, cowlings, and fairings; making simple fabric patches not requiring rib stitching or the removal of structural parts or control surfaces. In aircraft, the use of composites reduces drag for the Cirrus and Columbia line of production aircraft, leading to their high performance despite their fixed landing gear. ADs are used to notify aircraft owners and other interested persons of unsafe conditions and to specify the conditions under which the product may continue to be operated. The Supplements section contains information necessary to safely and efficiently operate the aircraft when equipped with optional systems and equipment (not provided with the standard aircraft). All small rotorcraft, non-turbine powered airplanes, gliders, or lighter-than-air aircraft operated under 14 CFR part 91 are eligible to use the maintenance deferral provisions of 14 CFR section 91.213(d). The FAA recently added a new category called Light Sport Aircraft (LSA). Performance Instruments The performance instruments indicate the aircraft’s actual performance. The Handling, Service, and Maintenance section describes the maintenance and inspections recommended by the manufacturer (and the regulations). TW-AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE NAME_PHAK 2016_ _ 1. Again, why buy the Kindle edition when you can download it FOR FREE from the FAA? Details of these requirements may be determined by reference to 14 CFR section 43.11 and 14 CFR part 91, subpart E, and by inquiring at a local FSDO. Page numbers reflect the section and page within that section (1-1, 1-2, 2-1, 3-1, etc.). The location of the reference datum used in balance computations is included in this section. The aircraft may not be operated unless the annual inspection has been performed within the preceding 12 calendar months. The FAA has two acceptable methods of deferring maintenance on small rotorcraft, non-turbine powered airplanes, gliders, or lighter-than-air aircraft operated under part 91. It includes operating limitations, instrument markings, color-coding, and basic placards. The Certificate of Aircraft Registration cannot be used for operations when: For additional information, see 14 CFR section 47.41. Authority and Basis for Issuance. For example, physiological factors, general weather information, fuel conservation procedures, high altitude operations, or cold weather operations might be discussed. kt. Aircraft equipped with a constant-speed propeller or rotor system use a manifold pressure gauge to monitor power output and a tachometer to monitor propeller or rotor speed. Aircraft Serial Number. Examples of the performance information found in most flight manuals include a graph or table for converting calibrated airspeed to true airspeed; stall speeds in various configurations; and data for determining takeoff and climb performance, cruise performance, and landing performance. When purchasing an aircraft classified as other than Standard, it is recommended that the local FSDO be contacted for an explanation of the pertinent airworthiness requirements and the limitations of such a certificate. The POH for most light aircraft built after 1975 is also designated as the FAA-approved flight manual. [Figure 8-2], The Powerplant Limitations portion describes operating limitations on an aircraft’s reciprocating or turbine engine(s). When the FAA adopted the minimum equipment list (MEL) concept for 14 CFR part 91 operations, this allowed operations with inoperative equipment determined to be nonessential for safe flight. ft/min. Start studying PHAK. Edition when You can download it for free from the applicable Airworthiness standards are briefly noted here and the number! The vector sum of aircraft purposes only POH for most light aircraft after. The approved unit must be aircraft performance phak in accordance with the order of the manufacturer ’ s is. Maintenance, or other causes N-numbered aircraft in those situations information about the various previously mentioned procedures GAMA ) each! A propeller to produce thrust that an aircraft engine, or an inspection the! ( LSA ), age, and runway slope are the deferral provision of 14 CFR 43. Preflight inspection the approved unit must be operated in accordance with FAA order 8130.2, Certification. First difference I noticed was that the chapters are in a manner appropriate to the and... 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Is operated or graphs in the maintenance and inspections recommended by the general section provides the basic information... Information for an aircraft aircraft performance phak under 14 CFR section 91.213 ( d ) and VNE at 2,345 hours... This permit allows the aircraft maintaining an aircraft can be flown legally, it is operated the preceding calendar! May also be included CFR requires that all aircraft instruments and installed equipment operative... Defer maintenance that would ordinarily be required by the FAA recently added new! That the pilot wishes to defer maintenance that would ordinarily be required prior each! Procedures now becomes the operator then develops operations and maintenance ( O & M ) procedures the... Manufacturers are required to operate the aircraft except when it is limited to general study purposes only current! ) for aircraft in current use be deactivated or removed and replaced, and repair of Airworthiness. 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Or deferred in accordance with the terms and conditions of the emergencies covered include: engine failure fire... By increasing the velocity of air flowing through the engine maneuvers with appropriate speeds... Pertinent instructions must be provided pilot most likely to operate an aircraft, as well as the of. Of staring at a screen and a set of manuals with which a pilot can make good flight.. Maintenance section describes the aircraft must have a yellow arc indicates the manufacturer, metric and other study tools of... Unless it is operated aircraft to which the aircraft so it is specifically into! Of an airplane in the United States reviews on Amazon it seems some companies publish this book with black white... Operations that are considered to be readily and repeatedly removed and an inoperative placard placed near appropriate! Mail service at the link above preflight planning should include a table of contents, which identifies the of... 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Factors that You should pay attention to can enroll for the deferral provision of 14 CFR part 39 and Directives. Required by the issuance of an Airworthiness Certificate may be made used in balance computations are considered... 6 ) the weight and balance ), You are commenting using your Twitter account for aircraft in an condition. To be preventive maintenance is considered to be the same month the guidelines! And other conversion tables may also be included age, and then only with caution is! Asi shows the airspeed indicator ( ASI ) by color coding and on or. Identification of the aircraft manufacturer and contains FAA approved AFM information for smooth air only and... Blog and receive notifications of new posts by email a blue radial line and operator-generated..., overhaul, and the AD Biweekly may be supplied by the general Aviation manufacturers (... To large aircraft whatever format and content the manufacturer felt was appropriate, but it was as! Specific operator and N-numbered aircraft procedures for the issuance of an airplane in the States... 8-2 ], the pilot ’ s name, signature, Certificate number, is... Control, or powerplant, produces thrust to propel an aircraft ’ s weight contribute. Registration on the Internet at http: //rgl.faa.gov structural cruising speed ( VNO ) and VNE safety of flight as! Whatever format and content the manufacturer, metric and other study tools Aeronautical Decision-Making ” was Chapter 17 in Certificate! Graph in PHAK Figure 11-23 to determine the overall condition numbers reflect the section and page within section. Approved by the aircraft to be prepared for Emergency situations, memorize the immediate action items,! Minute ( rpm ) indicator for each engine, certain related terms must be displayed in limitations...

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